NB: Only available to clients based in the Republic of Ireland – qualification criteria applies (see qualification code and link below)
Ages: 3-0 through 12-11
Testing Time: 20 to 30 minutes
Qualification Code: B – See: www.otb.ie/qualification-codes
The Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language-Fourth Edition (TACL4) is the latest revision of this popular, individually administered test. It is a reliable and valid measure of a child’s receptive spoken vocabulary, grammar and syntax. The test measures children’s ability to understand three language forms:
- Vocabulary: The meanings of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and of words that represent basic percepts and concepts.
- Grammatical Morphemes: The meaning of function words (e.g., prepositions, pronouns, determiners) and inflections (e.g., bound morphemes such as noun number and case, verb number and tense, noun–verb agreement, and derivational suffixes).
- Elaborated Phrases and Sentences: The meaning of syntactically based word relations and elaborated phrase and sentence constructions, including the modalities of single and combined constructions (interrogative sentences, negative sentences, active and passive voice, direct and indirect object), embedded sentences, and partially and completely conjoined sentences.
The TACL4 was co-normed with and is a companion to the Test of Expressive Language (TEXL; Carrow-Woolfolk & Allen, 2014). While the TACL4 measures a child’s receptive language ability the TEXL measures a child’s expressive language ability. Clinicians who have given both TACL4 and TEXL to the same child can combine these scores to obtain a comprehensive measure of language ability across linguistic features (semantics, morphology, and syntax) as well as overall oral language ability using the reproducible TACL4/TEXL Summary Form. This form is found in TACL4 / TEXL Comprehensive Scoring Supplement. The TACL4/TEXL Summary Form provides space to record TACL4 and TEXL scores, calculate additional composite scores, conduct receptive-expressive discrepancy analyses, and profile these scores. These scores provide comprehensive information on oral language skills comparable to scores derived from the Test of Language Development- Primary, Fourth Edition (TOLD-P:4; Newcomer & Hammill, 2008), Test of Language Development- Intermediate, Fourth Edition (TOLD-I:4; Hammill & Newcomer, 2008), Oral and Written Language Scales, Second Edition (OWLS-II; Elizabeth Carrow-Woolfolk, 2011), Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fifth Edition (CELF-5; Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2013), and the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (Carrow-Woolfolk, 2008).
New Features in the Fourth Edition
- Enhanced assessment of oral language skills when used in combination with the TEXL and the free, reproducible TACL4/TEXL Summary Form.
- All-new nationally representative normative sample of 1,142 children in the U.S.
- Characteristics of the normative sample were stratified by age relative to region, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and other critical variables and are the same as those reported for the preschool and school-age populations reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States 2013 (ProQuest, LLC, 2012).
- The age-range of the test was extended upward to include ages 10-0 through 12-11.
- Age-related entry points, basals, and ceilings ensure that testing time is kept to a minimum and children are only tested on the items that are optimal for their ability level.
- Floor effects and ceiling effects present in the subtests of the third edition were addressed by the addition of both easy and difficult items to the test. As a result, floor and ceiling effects are minimal in the subtests and nonexistent in the composite, the Receptive Language Index.
- Each item on the test was re-evaluated using both conventional item analyses to choose “good” items, and the new differential analyses to find and eliminate potentially biased items.
- A major effort has been made to demonstrate conclusively that the fourth edition is both reliable and valid. This effort involved providing more studies with larger samples than were offered in support of the third edition. Further, the TACL4 was subjected to diagnostic accuracy analyses, particularly rigorous techniques involving the computation of the sensitivity index, specificity index, the receiver operating characteristic/area under curve (ROC/AUC).
- A copy of the Critical Reviews and Research Findings for TACL: 19652013 is included with the each test kit.
- The TACL4 was co-normed with the Test of Expressive Language (TEXL; Carrow-Woolfolk & Allen, 2014).